Kendra Bischoff

Associate Professor


My primary research interests relate to the intersection of neighborhoods and schools. In one area of research, I study the patterns, the causes, and the consequences of racial and socioeconomic residential segregation. My work has documented patterns in income segregation over time in the United States, and has shown that rising income inequality has contributed to an increase in income segregation among American families. My work has also shown that the fragmentation of school districts is related to elevated racial segregation, indicating that political boundaries are an important mechanism leading to segregated institutions. A second line of research examines the relationship between elementary and secondary school enrollment decisions and neighborhood contexts, such as the levels and geographic patterns of social inequality among residents and the prevalence of school choice options. I also have an ongoing interest in the role of schools in fostering civic engagement and citizenship, and in how unequal school environments shape opportunities for civic education.

I was awarded the 2023 Robert A. and Donna B. Paul Award for Excellence in Advising and Mentoring from the Cornell College of Arts and Sciences.


Recent Courses Taught

SOC 1101       Introduction to Sociology
SOC 2250     Schooling and Society
SOC 3030     Research Methods: Design and Measurement
SOC 3380     Urban Inequality
SOC 6340     Sociology of Education


Bischoff, Kendra and Emily Sandusky. 2023. "Local Economic Segregation and Opinions about Income Integration in Schools." City and Community.

Bischoff, Kendra, Ann Owens, Sean F. Reardon, and Joseph B. Townsend. 2022. "Comment on Logan et al.: "The Uptick in Income Segregation," American Journal of Sociology 127:1664-1674.

Atteberry, Allison, Kendra Bischoff, and Ann Owens. 2021. "Identifying Progress Toward Ethnoracial Achievement Equity across U.S. School Districts: A New Approach." Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness 14:410-441.

Bischoff, Kendra and Laura Tach. 2020. “School Choice, Neighborhood Change, and Racial Imbalance Between Public Elementary Schools and Surrounding Neighborhoods." Sociological Science 7:75-99.
*IPUMS Spatial Research Article Award

Bischoff, Kendra and Ann Owens. 2019. "The Segregation of Opportunity: Social and Financial Resources in the Educational Contexts of Lower- and Higher-Income Children, 1990-2014." Demography 56:1635-1664.

Reardon, Sean, Kendra Bischoff, Ann Owens, and Joseph B. Townsend. 2018. “Has Income Segregation Really Increased? Bias and Bias-Correction in Sample-Based Segregation Estimates.” Demography 55:2129-2160.

Bischoff, Kendra and Laura Tach. 2018. “The Racial Composition of Neighborhoods and Local Schools: The Role of Diversity, Inequality, and School Choice.” City and Community 17(3):675-701.

Bischoff, Kendra. 2016. “The Civic Effects of Schools: Theory and Empirics.” Theory and Research in Education 14(1):91-106.

Reardon, Sean and Kendra Bischoff. 2016. “The Continuing Increase in Income Segregation, 2007-12.” Stanford University: Center for Education Policy Analysis.

Bischoff, Kendra and Sean Reardon. 2014. “Residential Segregation by Income, 1970-2009.” Pp. 208-233 in Diversity and Disparities: America Enters a New Century, edited by John Logan. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Bischoff, Kendra and Kenneth Shores. 2014. “The Role of Social Science in Action-Guiding Philosophy: The Case of Educational Equity.” Theory and Research in Education 12(2):131-150.

Reardon, Sean and Kendra Bischoff. 2011. “Income Inequality and Income Segregation.” American Journal of Sociology 116(4):1092-1153.

  • Abridged version prepared for: Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective, 4th Edition, edited by David B. Grusky. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2014.

Reardon, Sean, Chad Farrell, Stephen Matthews, David O’Sullivan, Kendra Bischoff, and Glenn Firebaugh. 2009. “Race and Space in the 1990s: Changes in the Geographic Scale of Racial Residential Segregation, 1990-2000.” Social Science Research 38(1):55-70.

Bischoff, Kendra. 2008. “School District Fragmentation and Racial Residential Segregation: How do Boundaries Matter?” Urban Affairs Review 44(2):182-217.

Public Engagement Publications

Bischoff, Kendra. 2016. “Policy Brief: The Geography of Economic Inequality.” Washington, DC: Washington Center for Equitable Growth.

Reardon, Sean and Kendra Bischoff. 2014. “No Neighborhood is an Island.” The Dream  Revisited Series. New York University: The Furman Center.

Bischoff, Kendra and Sean Reardon. 2012. “No Middle Ground.” Boston Review, May/June.

In the news

SOC Courses - Spring 2024

SOC Courses - Fall 2024